Conventional methods of controlling pests in orchards and gardens can cause collateral damage: they kill the auxiliary fauna, the bacterial flora of the rhizosphere or the mycorrhizae of the soil, while contaminating the water tables, rivers or streams, and finally the oceans.
In addition, they are systems that, over time, can increase the resistance of pathogens to these toxins, reduce the effectiveness of pesticides, leading to increased doses or the application of other more potent products, l ‘increased cost of production, reduced long-term yields and increased pollution.
Fortunately, we have many alternative remedies to fight pests and diseases in the garden or orchard:
- biological methodsas natural controllers, soil fertility control, microorganisms and invertebrates or plant preparations and other natural products.
- physical methodssuch as weeding, specific tillage tools, turning avoidance, solarization, planting systems, live hedges and windbreaks, mowing, traps and barriers, or covers; chemical methods, as attractants, repellents, insecticides and fungicides of natural origin; Yes
- cultivation methodssuch as rotations, associations, coverage, varietal selection, crop diversification, planting-harvest dates or soil fertility control.
In this summarized way we see a catalog of ideas for the control of some of the most common pests and infections in our orchards or gardens:
- deer, deer: fence / Plant rosemary, sage, tulips, daffodils, lupins, budleia, scylla (Siberian squill) / Smelly repellents: oil, olives, cloves and lemongrass, human hair / Maceration 100 g of crushed garlic in 3 tablespoons of olive oil, 12 hours and filter. + 1l of rainwater and dilution 1/20. Grind.
- mice, voles: Perches for raptors / Planted mints and chamomile / predator silhouettes / Buried garlic skins / Euphorbia fermentation: 800g /10 l of water / Pesticides favor them.
- rabbits: Fences and protections / raptor perches / Predator silhouettes.
- moles: Favor nocturnal birds of prey / Vibrations and noises, iron rods stuck with knocking cans and bottles / Cats / Smoke in molehills or strong smells and scents: fritilaria, tansy, incarvillea / Fermentation tartago (800 g / 10 l of water).
- birds: tights / noises and flashes / predator silhouettes / Scarecrow / Repellents: fish, crabs, herring.
- snails and slugs: Toads, hedgehogs, thrushes, blackbirds, ducks / Harvesting after the rain / Creating shelters where they can be collected / Traps for beer or orange peel, under canvas / Barriers of ash, sawdust, chopped eggshells / Infusion of coffee or black tea: 1/ 20 drives away; 1/ 10 kills / infusion of wormwood in the ground / Last resort: iron sulphate and ashes pulverized at 50%.
- Ants: Rubber bands, greased ribbons, eucalyptus oil or essence of turpentine on logs or barriers / boiling salted water on the anthill / copper rod, mesh pyramids / repellent plants: chervil, lavender, sage bay, nasturtium, mint, thyme, tansy
- Cockroaches: Hedgehogs, toads, blackbirds, ducks / Black henbane powdered sugar – walnuts – black hellebore – black horehound – mullein leaves.
- flies: Sticky strips / Pheromone traps or food attractants / Onion extract, carrot fly.
- white fly: Wasp. Encarsia Formosa, oriu sp., Macrolophus sp. / Yellow sticky strips / Apply steam using Vaporetta / Infusions of sage, rue, comfrey, tansy / Potassium soap: 100g/10l of water / Last resort: Neem, pyrethrum.
- aphids: Seasonal manual control / Earwigs, ladybugs, hoverflies, lacewings, gall midges / Potassium soap: 100g/10l of water. Neem oil / Infusions: sage, tansy, soapwort, mints, santolina, quassia, rue, wormwood, garlic, rhubarb, elderberry, ivy, fern, comfrey, tobacco and nettle / Last resort: Neem, pyrethrum, rotenone…
- Drawing pins: Manual control / Repellents: tansy, wormwood / Insecticides and insecticides: garlic, pepper, onion / Alternate with potassium soap / Last resort: Neem, pyrethrum.
- mealybugs: Manual control / Vaporetta or pressure spray with lemon water / Potassium soap: 100g/10l of water / Sage infusions / Last resort: Neem, pyrethrum, rotenone.
- Potato or eggplant beetle: Adult manual control and yellow broods or larvae / Bacillus thuringiensis at sunset / Last resort: Neem, pyrethrum, rotenone.
- thrips: Meshes / Infusions: sage, tansy, soapwort, mints, santolina, quassia, rue, wormwood, garlic, rhubarb, elderberry, ivy, fern, comfrey and nettle / Blue sticky traps / Last resort: Neem, pyrethrum, rotenone.
- Lice or fleasFood pairing: Fresh spring alder leaves, stick/walnut leaves, San Roque grass (Pulicaria), fennel, wormwood, rue, pennyroyal. Put branches or burn them spread the smoke / Decoction of elderberry, cabbage chip.
- Mites: There are thrips and mites, such as Phytoseilus persimilizes, which are their natural enemies / Irrigation by sprinkling and watering the soil (water stress favors them). Effective against bean mites / Vaporetta or pressurized water spray on underside / Slaked lime plus wood ash / Infusions and decoctions of nettle, wormwood, horsetail, dried tobacco leaves, tansy, santolina, garlic / Last remedy: Neem, pyrethrum
- the caterpillars: Manual control of adults and eggs or yellow larvae / Infusions of mint, tansy, sage, wormwood, rhubarb / Pheromone traps or food attractants / Favor insectivorous birds / Bacillus thuringiensis at sunset / Last resort: rotenone.
- nematodes: Calendula and/or marigold plant / Marigold and/or marigold green manure / Repellents: Helenium, gallardia, ambrosia trifidus, Schkuhria seneciodes / Biofumigation and/or solarization / Soil and compost fungi parasitize them : Do not use fungicides , they favor them.
- Virus: Adapted or resistant varieties / Garlic / Propolis tincture in dilution / Causes growth retardation and spots.
- bacteria: Adapted or resistant varieties / Garlic, horsetail, thyme / Propolis tincture in dilution.
- Mushroom: Adapted or resistant varieties / Infusion, decoction, fermentation of horsetail, garlic, nettle, white radish, fern, wormwood, nasturtium, rumex, burdock, tansy, lemon with water / Propolis tincture in dilution / Buttermilk or yoghurt ( 1 /2 l for 10 l of water) or milk (10-50%) / Sulfur or seaweed dust, sprinkled or fumigated if wet / Last resort: copper salts, Bordeaux mixture…